Bowling Underarm – Ten-pin bowling, flat green bowling and crown green bowling

Ten-pin bowling is a sport and popular leisure activity where players compete to knock down as many pins as possible standing at the end of a wooden or synthetic bowling lane with a large ball.

Bowls or lawn bowls is a sport leisure activity where the objective is to roll large balls over grass surfaces so that they stop as close as possible to a smaller ball called a jack. The large ball is weighted on one side or biased so that it rolls in a slight arc.

In flat-green bowls the green is flat and bowling occurs along parallel playing strips called rinks. In crown-green bowls the green is convex or uneven. Both types are normally played outdoors on manicured grass and there are many variations in the shapes and sizes of greens. There are however more indoor clubs starting up which play on synthetic surface.

All the underarm bowling sports require skill and good shoulder flexibility especially full shoulder flexion and scapula protraction and good elbow movement. Stretch the agonists (the muscles that contract) because they will shorten with use and stretch the antagonists to allow movement to occur.

Bowling involves head extension, upper cervical extension and lower cervical flexion, …..


Archery is the practice of propelling arrows with the use of a bow to a target. Traditionally, archery has been used for hunting and warfare but it is now a major competitive sport and recreational activity.

Head flexion and cervical flexion, sidebending and rotation are necessary for positioning the head and lining up the eye with the arrow and the target. Thoracic and lumbar sidebending and rotation place the spine and body in the correct position for controlling the bow. Pulling on the bow involves scapula retraction, shoulder abduction and horizontal extension, and elbow flexion in one limb and elbow extension in the other and finger flexion. Hip extension and external rotation as well as knee extension and foot plantar flexion stabilise the lower limb for upper limb execution.

Stretching the muscles that contract, stretch their antagonists to allow movement and stretch the joint stabiliser and neutraliser muscles. For example stretch the wrist extensor muscles because they contract to stabilise the wrist during finger flexion.


Weekly stretching program for archery